24 May 2013
As mentioned before, fuses are used to set a couple of things that might need to be set before the actual software starts to run. As a beginner you should not tinker with most of those settings, because it is possible to lock yourself out of in-system programming.
Installing the Software
As mentioned, there are many options when it comes to software. One standard program, which is available for many operating systems is avrdude. Unfortunately, it is a command line tool, which makes it less than ideal for beginners. But there are GUI frontends available. I decided to use AVRDUDESS for this tutorial. And it is quite easy to use.
23 May 2013
What Hardware do I need?
Obviously you need the controller. This can be any Atmel ATtiny or ATMega. You need a circuit board to put the controller in (the "target board") and you need an ISP programmer. Since ISP uses a serial format, the programmer can be rather compact.